Common diesel engine fuel system materials are shown in Table 3.Among them, common ferrous metals are steel and cast iron, non-ferrous metals are aluminum and copper alloy, and non-metallic metals include elastomers. Diesel engines work by compressing only air or air plus residual exhaust flue gases (known as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)). Air is introduced into the chamber during the intake stroke and compressed during the compression stroke. This increases the temperature of the air inside the cylinder to such an extent that the atomized diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber ignites.
Because the fuel is injected into the air just before combustion, the dispersion of the fuel is uneven; this is called a heterogeneous mixture of air and fuel. The torque produced by a diesel engine is controlled by manipulating the air-fuel ratio (431); instead of limiting the intake air, the diesel engine is based on altering the amount of fuel that is injected, and the air-fuel ratio is usually high. The diesel engine, which bears the name of Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which the ignition of the fuel is due to the high temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression; therefore, the diesel engine is called compression-ignition engine (CI engine). The world's largest diesel engines put into service are 14-cylinder, two-stroke marine diesel engines; they produce a maximum power of almost 100 MW each.
Diesel engine, any internal combustion engine in which air is compressed at a temperature high enough to ignite the diesel fuel injected into the cylinder, where combustion and expansion drive a piston. DIN 51601 diesel fuel was prone to waxing or gelling in cold climates; both are terms for the solidification of diesel in a partially crystalline state. Critics said that Diesel never invented a new engine and that the invention of the diesel engine is a fraud. In his 1893 work Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat Engine, Rudolf Diesel considers the use of carbon dust as fuel for the diesel engine.
Medium-speed diesel engines run on diesel or heavy fuel oil by direct injection in the same way as low-speed engines. Diesel engines for boats are usually powered by diesel engine fuel that complies with ISO 8217 (Bunker C). While aviation has traditionally avoided diesel engines, aircraft diesel engines are becoming increasingly available in the 21st century.